A buffer solution is a mixture of water and chemical to produce specific pH (acidity). It minimizes the change in the acidity of a solution, when an acid or base is added to the solution. Buffer solutions are used to protect equipment and calibrate instrumentation for accuracy in aquaculture, hydroponics, and in other scientific applications. Buffer values are dependent upon temperature, and are more accurate at the same temperature as samples. Oakton Instruments manufactures an array of scientific instruments for research, industrial, and educational uses. Since 1991, Oakton has distributed a wide variety of instruments such as meters, electrodes, and transmitters. Oakton is based in Vernon Hills, IL, and has facilities in Europe, Asia, and China.